Mammoth Mountain Avalanche and Weather Database

Data format: will be mirrored to a MySQL database

File or table name: weather.mdb (currently an MS Access database)

Theme keywords: avalanche, weather, ski patrol, Mammoth Mountain

Abstract: Mammoth Mountain Ski Patrol Avalanche and Weather Records

FGDC and ESRI Metadata:

Metadata elements shown with blue text are defined in the Federal Geographic Data Committee's (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM). Elements shown with green text are defined in the ESRI Profile of the CSDGM. Elements shown with a green asterisk (*) will be automatically updated by ArcCatalog. ArcCatalog adds hints indicating which FGDC elements are mandatory; these are shown with gray text.

Identification Information:


Citation:
Citation information:
Originators: Walter Rosenthal, Ned Bair, Alex Clayton, Mammoth Mountain Ski Patrol


Title:Mammoth Mountain Avalanche and Weather Database
*File or table name: weather.mdb (currently an MS Access database)


Publication date: circa 1999
Geospatial data presentation form: tabular digital data


Online linkage: patrol.mammothmountain.com


Description:
Abstract:
Mammoth 
Mountain Ski Patrol Avalanche and Weather 
Records

Purpose:
For public 
information sharing of weather conditions 
on Mammoth Mountain, research, avalanche prediction, legal records, and 
general record keeping,

Supplemental information:
A Timeline of 
Snow and Weather Observations at 
Mammoth Mountain Ski Area
1955 
Chair 1 opens [www.mammothmountain.com]

1960s
Active snow ranger program began in mid 1960s.
USFS Snow rangers program at Mammoth Mountain
USFS employees at the time: Stan Bunz, John  Harning, Jim Coleman.

1960s
Patrol 
Milstein?
Darryl Aukee "Animal"

1967
Art Judson launched the Westwide Avalanche Network (WAN) funded  by the 
USFS avalanche project in Fort Collins, CO. [The Avalanche Review, VOL. 
16, NO. 3, JANUARY 1998]

November 1, 1968
Earliest weather and avalanche observations at Mammoth Mountain Ski Area 
conducted by USFS. Data later becomes part of Westwide Avalanche Network 
Database, digitized by Knox Williams, Mark Moore, Betsy Armstrong, and 
others at the CAIC. covers Nov 1968 - March 1995 

12/13/1973
Marvin R Critten is killed in an explosives accident [TAR February 
2007].

John Garner was patrol director.
??/1973
Bill 'Bilboe' Hanon accident - lost fingers.
-accidents believed to have been caused by putting on strikers 
prematurely, and then storing what would now be considered lit fuse in 
parka [Danny Whitmore interview 1/29/08 interview].

Ray Carson becomes interim patrol director.

1972
Danny Whitmore joins the  USFS as a field based Nordic ranger. 
Worked pro patrol under John Garner for MMSP prior.

1974
Danny Whitmore becomes a snow ranger at Mammoth Mountain. Works until 
1996.

1/29/2008 interview - Describes a mentorship program under John Harning 
and others

-USFS had a portable 75mm rifle. Traveled to different areas in Mono 
County: June Lake, South Lake, Lake Sabrina. Efforts were described as 
futile. Often shot after slides had occurred. 

-USFS employees fired artillery and were always present on gun mounts.
Collected separate sheets. Plot was behind Mid.

-maintained weather sites around the mountain: top of the mountain, mid 
chalet, main lodge.
Used storm and 24 hour boards at site near old UCSB site across 
mid-chalet from Sorensen's Lake toward Chair 5. Had a snow pillow for 
SWE. Also weighed snow daily. Concurrent measurements at mid from 
1982-1995 with patrol main lodge/minaret mile.

-Whitmore credits Dozier and Dawson, UCSB with promoting snow science at 
Mammoth.

-Other USFS snow rangers/employees:
Bob Wood, Rich Messenger, Stan Bunz - ranger.

Michael Levine - radio tech in Bishop who maintained USFS weather sites 
at Mammoth

1972
After patrolling for 4 years, Gary Reitman becomes patrol director of 
Mammoth Mountain.

November 4, 1979
Preseason SS-AO-4 in Cornice Bowl partially buries 1 and kills 1. 
Whitmore doesn't remember.
[Snowy Torrents 1972-1979] 

1982
-Michael Bennet establishes patrol weather program. Whitmore and 
Bouzaglou [1/29/08] credit him. Bouzaglou describes as an academic, 
nerdy type.

-Bouzaglou describes heated annomemeters at Main Lodge [same as current 
location], Top of 22, Top of the World. Resemble Phil Taylor 
instruments, but may have also been heated RM Young? Eddy B not sure. 

-weather plot at Main Lodge adjacent to Minaret Mile, past Chalets, on 
left ~30 feet from road. 

-wind head reading came from output on 2nd floor of main lodge in Jill's 
Room. Read windspeed, direction, barometric pressure. All instantaneous 
readings.

-wind speeds could not be read remotely. Lift maintenance had gauges 
setup at lift shacks.

-weather plot at Canyon Lodge for a while. Weather forecasts came from 
NWS office in Bishop, which subsequently was shut down.

1982
Bobby Hoyt's first season on patrol

1983
Eddy B's first season on patrol. Goes on to win Boondoggler of the year 
numerous times.

1985
Eddy B becomes one of three year round employees.

Mid 1980's
Walter Rosenthal joins patrol

Bouzaglou credits Rosenthal with pushing weather collection at Mammoth.

2/21/1986
258" crown in Dropout 3

Early to mid 1990s
Accident in Bluffs. Bouzaglou has foggy memory of.

Early 1990s
Path atlas created by Eddy Bouzaglou
Uses a Lotus spreadsheet to enter data from USFS. Spreadsheet work done 
by Mary Walker. At the time, a patrol nurse.

1991
Walter Rosenthal leaves patrol to pursue a master's at UC-Santa Barbara.
[ www.icess.ucsb.edu/news/walter.html]

1995
Forest Service ends funding for WAN. 
Mammoth snow rangers are eliminated.

Mid to late 1990's
Bob Baas, MMSA telecom, sets up a touch screen LED monitor at patrol to 
link to lift maintenance wind heads that were going up for newly built 
lifts and at top of 22. Records hourly wind speed, direction, gusts, and 
temperature. Includes a bar graph. [Eddy B email 1/20/08] 

1995?
Deep post control release in Daves.

1996
Danny Whitmore leaves USFS.

October 1999
-MMSP installs and networks five weather stations using Phil Taylor 
nanometers:
Chair 1, Chair 14, Top Gondola, Chair 22, Sesame Street, Main Lodge
All went online at once. Installation took several summers.

-Daniel Howlett found weather plot location.
Walter and Eddy B did research on weather system, at Reitman's request, 
on which system to buy.
 
-Eddy B describes static noise problems at Sesame street. Walter works 
with software, Eddy works with wiring.

2000
Eddy B has knee surgery and leaves patrol.

?
John Murrell becomes involved with weather program

November 30, 2000
2 skiers injured in Red Cone Bowl accident [www.avalanche.org]

2001
Patrol website goes online. Held up because of concerns about 
firewalling.
Walter Rosenthal returns to patrol after a 10 year academic hiatus.

2004
Gary Reitman leaves patrol and becomes Director of Outside Operations. 
Bobby Hoyt becomes patrol director.

November, 2006
Alex Clayton and Ned Bair begin as snow analysts at Mammoth.

April 7, 2006
Fumarole accident.

April 17, 2006
2 buried, 8 caught in SS-AO-4 post control release in Climax.

November 2008

-Alex Clayton networks weather sites to become minute-to-minute.
-Ned leaves for UCSB

January 2009
-dub-snow.icess.ucsb.edu launched

compiled by Ned Bair, January 2009

*Language of dataset: en


Time period of content:
Time period information:
Range of dates/times:
Beginning date: 11/1/1968
Beginning time: 11:00AM
Ending date: current

Currentness reference:
ground 
condition

Status:
Progress: In work
Maintenance and update frequency: Continually

Spatial domain:
Bounding coordinates:
*West bounding coordinate: -119.061573
*East bounding coordinate: -118.965840
*North bounding coordinate: 37.658668
*South bounding coordinate: 37.611414

Local bounding coordinates:
*Left bounding coordinate: 1043796.249562
*Right bounding coordinate: 1071168.249562
*Top bounding coordinate: 13680302.862163
*Bottom bounding coordinate: 13663679.862163

Keywords:
Theme:
Theme keywords: avalanche, weather, ski patrol, Mammoth Mountain
Theme keyword thesaurus: US Board on Geographic Names http://geonames.usgs.gov/index.html

Access constraints: None
Use constraints:
None

Point of contact:
Contact information:
Contact organization primary:
Contact person: Alex Clayton
Contact organization: Mammoth Mountain Ski Patrol
Contact position: Avalanche and Snow Analyst


Contact address:
Address type: mailing and physical address
Address:
Ski Patrol, 1 
Minaret Road, PO Box 24
City: Mammoth Lakes
State or province: CA
Postal code: 93546
Country: USA

Contact voice telephone: 760-934-2571 X3576


Contact electronic mail address: aclayton@mammoth-mtn.com


Native dataset format: will be mirrored to a MySQL database
*Native data set environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.0.1324


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Data Quality Information:


Lineage:
Source information:
Source citation:
Citation information:
Title:
various sources (see supplemental info)


Process step:
Process description:
Metadata 
imported.

Source used citation abbreviation:
C:\Documents and Settings\nbair\Desktop\mdata\metadata.xml


Process step:
Process description:
Metadata 
imported.

Source used citation abbreviation:
C:\Documents and Settings\nbair\Desktop\mdata\metadata.xml


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Spatial Data Organization Information:


Direct spatial reference method: Raster


Raster object information:
Raster object type: Grid Cell


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Spatial Reference Information:


Horizontal coordinate system definition:
Coordinate system name:
*Projected coordinate system name: NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_11N
*Geographic coordinate system name: GCS_North_American_1983

Geodetic model:
*Horizontal datum name: North American Datum of 1983
*Ellipsoid name: Geodetic Reference System 80
*Semi-major axis: 6378137.000000
*Denominator of flattening ratio: 298.257222

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Entity and Attribute Information:


Overview description:
Entity and attribute overview:
2 tables of 
avalanche occurrences : 1967-2006, 
2006-present
1 table of daily weather observations: 1982-present
2 tables of automated weather readings: ~1999-present for Chair 1, Chair 
14 (currently not used), Chair 22, Top, Base, and another table with the 
same time period for the Sesame Street snow plot.

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Distribution Information:


Distribution liability:
none

Standard order process:
Digital form:
Digital transfer information:
Format name: MDB
Format specification:
Microsoft 
Access 2003 database

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Metadata Reference Information:


*Metadata date: 20081219


*Language of metadata: en


Metadata contact:
Contact information:
Contact organization primary:
Contact person: Alex Clayton
Contact organization: Mammoth Mountain Ski Patrol
Contact position: Snow and Avalanche Analyst


Contact address:
Address type: mailing and physical address
Address:
Ski Patrol, 1 
Minaret Road, PO Box 24
City: Mammoth Lakes
State or province: CA
Postal code: 93546
Country: USA

Contact voice telephone: 760-934-2571 X3576


*Metadata standard name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
*Metadata standard version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
*Metadata time convention: local time


Metadata extensions:
*Online linkage: http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html
*Profile name: ESRI Metadata Profile

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